acromegaly – excessive growth due to the production of excessive growth
hormone by the pituitary gland.
adrenal cortex – the outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes hormones that are vital to the body.
androgen hormone – a hormone that primarily influences the growth and development of the male reproductive system.
aldosterone – a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects blood
pressure and saline balance.
amyloidosis – a rare disease which causes the buildup of amyloid, a protein
and starch, in tissues and organs.
basal metabolic rate (BMR) – a measurement of energy required to keep the body functioning at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates increase with exertion, stress, fear, and illness.
bromocriptine – a drug which acts on hormone-producing tumors to suppress its hormone-producing function.
calcitonin – a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.
computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) – a non-invasive procedure that takes cross-sectional images of the brain or other internal organs; to detect any abnormalities that may not show up on an ordinary x-ray.
corticosteroids – hormones produced by the adrenal gland, consisting of hydrocortisone and corticosterone.
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) – this procedure involves inserting an endoscope (viewing tube) through the stomach and into the small intestine. A special dye injected during this procedures shows the ducts in the biliary system.
estrogen – a hormone secreted by the ovaries which affect many aspects of
the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.
glucagon – a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to produce glucose.
gonads – ovaries and testes.
gonadotropins – luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone,
produced by the pituitary gland.
hormones – chemical substances created by the body that control numerous
hydrocortisone – a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects
hypothalamus – the portion of the brain that stimulates the pituitary gland.
insulin – a hormone released by the pancreas in response to increased levels of sugar in the blood.
intravenous – introducing a fluid into the bloodstream through a vein (usually in the patient's forearm).
islets of Langerhans – pancreas cells that produce insulin and glucagon -- important regulators of sugar metabolism.
isthmus – tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a non-invasive procedure that produces two-dimensional view of an internal organ or structure, especially the brain and spinal cord.
metabolism – the chemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create other substances, such as proteins.
oxytocin – a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which plays a role in
placenta – this organ grows in the uterus during pregnancy and connects the blood supplies of the mother and baby.
polyps – a growth that projects from the lining of mucous membrane, such as the intestine.
progesterone – a hormone secreted by the ovaries which affect many
aspects of the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.
prolactin – a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which affects growth
of the mammatory glands.
radioisotope scan – uses radioactive substances introduced into the body to create an image of the functioning adrenal gland.
sarcoidosis – a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues
throughout the body.
sella turcica – bony structure that houses the pituitary gland.
suprarenal glands – another name for the adrenal glands.
thyroid scan – uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid as it is functioning.
thyroxine (T4) – a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.
triiodothyronine (T3) – a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.
ultrasound – a diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.
x-ray – electromagnetic energy used to produce images of bones and internal organs onto film.
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